Реферат "Long-term loans"
Краткое сожержание материала:
PLEKHANOV RUSSIAN UNIVERSITY OF ECONOMICS
INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS SCHOOL
Moscow - 2013
The problem of development banking in the world and in Russia in particular is becoming increasingly relevant today. In connection with the state of the Russian economy today, the problem is, I think, requires a thorough study.
Now there are many commercial banks, but not all of them are able to withstand the fierce competition in the market and our goal is, in my opinion, is to help navigate the modern entrepreneur, businessman, and anyone who wants to keep and increase their capital wisely to use their money. Everyone, in one way or another, either permanently or occasionally refers to banking services. Banks, collecting the temporarily idle cash resources, redistribute them among regions and industries, between companies and the public, feed the economy with additional capital, and "energy" resources, creating a framework for augmenting the wealth of society. Russia's transition to a market economy, improving the efficiency of its operation, providing the necessary infrastructure cannot be achieved without the use and further development of credit relations. Long-term loans play a special role in the economy of the country. They are associated with an investment in the real sector of the economy and can be a major source of raising the technical level of production, and hence competitiveness of our products.
Long-term loans stimulates the development of productive forces, accelerates the formation of sources of capital for the expansion of reproduction on the basis of scientific and technical progress. Long-term loans can have an active influence on the scope and structure of the money supply, payment transactions, the velocity of money. At the same time the loan is required to maintain the continuity of the turnover of assets of existing enterprises, service implementation process of production of goods. The objectives of this work - to try to more fully reveal the theoretical foundations of long-term loans, to understand how to conduct long-term lending to clients, and to determine the basic problem in the credit market.
Chapter 1. Theoretical basis of long-term loans
1.1 The concept of long-term loans
loan credit market financing
Bank has the largest share capital can provide long-term loans. The long-term loans include loans, the terms of repayment exceed 3 years. They serve the need for funds for capital formation, financial assets, as well as certain types of working capital. This is more risky loans, so the bank is going to long-term loans, loans for the development of policies based on their own considerations:
· keep the industry as a client;
· earn extra income.
The objects of long-term loans can be:
· capital investment enterprises in the costs of construction, reconstruction and modernization of industrial and social facilities;
· purchase of machinery, equipment, vehicles and buildings;
· establishment of joint ventures.
Long-term loans are beneficial to small and large businesses. The borrower can use the loan to the long-term, planning to repay it after a few years due to the implementation of the loan, scoring on the difference in interest rates.
The goals of long-term loans are:
· acquisition of equipment necessary for technical re-equipment, modernization, expansion of existing and the creation of new production;
· Construction and installation works related to the construction, reconstruction, technical re-equipment or industrial facilities;
· construction of all types of housing, retail, office, mixed-use complexes, healthcare facilities, education, the arts;
· projects in the field of road construction;
· development of mineral resources with a view to their commercial exploitation;
· acquisition of real estate capital forming in the implementation of investment projects;
· reimbursement of costs previously incurred by the borrower.
Long-term lending is done on the basis of:
· credit agreement;
· Treaty on the non-revolving line of credit, the general agreement on the opening loop line of credit.
The loan agreement with the borrower is subject to a one-time transfer of the loan to the bank or the foreign currency account of the borrower.
Non-revolving credit line is opened for various fees associated with one or more contracts and to cover working capital needs. The contract may be a time schedule for sampling the loan, as payment for the reservation of resources in the event of non-compliance by the borrower graphics resources.
The Framework offers a line of credit to the borrower in the case where the investment project involves several phases of the cost or repeated delivery of the equipment. For the payment of individual shipments under contracts and financing various stages of the project is a separate loan agreement on non-revolving credit line under a general agreement on the opening loop line of credit.
The Bank does not accept credit unprofitable, low-profit and non-profit projects.
The interest rate is set on a contractual basis, which is influenced by the following factors:
· costs of borrowed funds;
· degree of risk;
· repayment period;
· the costs of processing and control;
· rates of other banks;
· bets on the stock market;
· nature of the relationship between banks and borrowers;
· rate of return that can be achieved by investing in other assets.
Issuance of long-term loans can be done at once or in stages as construction and erection works. The specific timing and periodicity of repayment of long-term loans depend on the following factors:
· solvency, financial condition and other indicators of the borrower;
· credit risk;
· the need to accelerate the turnover of credit;
· other factors.
The Bank carries out monitoring of the construction and the intended use of the loan. In case of violation of the contractual relationship the bank applies economic sanctions.
1.2 Types of long-term loans
The credit market, there are various types of long-term loans, so anyone who need this form of loan without problems suits kind of long-term lending.
The following types of long-term loans:
"In the immediate needs." Loans are granted for the purchase of vehicles, garages, home appliances, payment of medical services and other objects of the consumer nature of the citizens of the Russian Federation at the age of 18 years, provided that the term of repayment of the loan contract comes before the execution of the borrower 75 years with a permanent source of income. Loan term of 5 years.
The maximum amount the bank is not limited and depends on the borrower's creditworthiness and provided. Unsecured loans are available for up to 1.5 years at a rate of up to 45,000 rubles.
"In real estate," "Mortgage". Loans are available for purchase, construction, reconstruction, repair of real estate (apartments, houses, other buildings consumer goods, land). Loan term to 20 years. After the registration of the mortgage acquired property interest rate decreases. The maximum loan amount depends on the borrower's income (family) and provided, but can not exceed 90% of the value of real estate credited with mandatory investment by the borrower's own funds in the amount of 10% of its value.
"Young Family". Credit is given to the acquisition, construction of real estate to Russian citizens aged 18 years old, married, provided that one of the couple has not reached 30 years of age, and citizens of single-parent families in which the mother (father) not reached 30 years of age. Loan term 20 years (up to 25 years of delays in the provision for repayment of principal).
After the registration of the mortgage acquired property interest rate decreases. The maximum loan amount depends on the borrower's creditworthiness and may not exceed 95% of the purchase price of the property for a young family with a child (ren), or 90% of the purchase price of the property for a young family with no children. The rest of the cost is paid from the funds to the loan.
"Credit for the citizens of the leading private farming." Loans are granted to citizens of Russia in rubles, at the age of 18 years, provided that the term of repayment of the loan contract comes before the execution of the borrower 75 years, either in cash, or by bank transfer.
Loan term is defined earmarked credit:
· up to 2 years...